“龙”的英文应该翻译成 loong
首页  导航地图  为龙正名  媒介  外国漫画中的“龙”  Loong 的英文解释  Loong 的应用实例
  编者按:今天搜索网络时,非常高兴地发现台北蒙天祥先生也曾撰文提出应该把“龙”翻译成“Loong”,而且是中、英双文。文章发表于 2004年(民国93年)1月10日出版的《广西文献》(台北市广西同乡会编辑出版)。现全文转载,并设法与蒙先生联系,共同推动“为龙正‘英’名”事业的发展。(黄佶,2006年2月19日)
  
為「龍」正視聽是我們的責任

蒙天祥

  大陸考古學家最近在河南省的出土文物中,有了重要的發現,證實距今六千年以前,中華民族就有了「龍」的圖形,那是用石塊排成的,龍身有幾公尺長,龍頭龍尾俱全(見插圖)。由此推論,「龍」進入中國人的心中、佔有地位,應該比黃帝還早一千年。

  有關龍的起源,至今各學派還是眾說紛紜,有學者認為那是某部族的祖先有崇拜蛇的風俗演變而來;也有「學者」主張,遠古時的祖先「驚見」到大恐龍,就根據它的形狀,寫出了現在的龍字。(主張此說的「學者」,可能對自然科學不太清楚。蓋恐龍生存在侏羅紀,距今約一至兩億年;人類的出現,有三十五萬年至一百萬年各種說法,但「現代智人」的出現距今不超過三至五萬年,人不但見不到活恐龍,由於沒有開挖技術,古人見到恐龍整套骨骸也沒有可能。)龍既然是想像的產物,我們其實應該從「想像」的角度去尋找它的來源,才可能避免牽強附會。

  近年考古學家在廣西桂林及其他地方陸續發現距今九千年以上的陶器,據此推算中國人的文明起自九千年前,應可算是有據的。八、九千年前,中國已經進入到農業社會,也還是「人與天爭」的時期。這個時期的人,生生死死都受到大自然極大的影響,像風、雨、旱、雷、電,使人既期待、又畏懼,因此產生對自然力的敬畏,是合乎情理的。自然力之大,祖先無以名狀,卻可用「長」來替代,這可能是「龍」是長形的起因。有一派學者舉出,史前人看見天邊彩虹,心生讚羨,信為祥兆,也可能啟動了「飛龍在天」的靈感。歷來,人們相信龍能騰雲駕霧、呼風喚雨、興風作浪,其實,這些無一不是大自然力的展現。直到民國初年,無知的老人家還告誡小孩不可用手指指著天虹、指向打雷閃電的天空,因為那是對龍的不敬,證明古來的人一直把自然現象和龍劃了等號。由是看來,金龍可能象徵金霞滿天、青龍可能象徵青天、烏龍可能象徵陰天…,不管怎麼說,在中國人心中,「有龍則靈」。

  世界各民族有用所謂「圖騰」或動物來代表自己的精神、信仰或特色,有的用鷹、有的用雄獅。中國人自己創造了象徵全能的大自然力(Almighty natural power)的龍來代表自己,自認是「龍的傳人」;龍是中國人心中的「靈物」,不是一般的動物。從這裡也可看出,選擇「靈物」,與選擇禽、獸來代表自己,正是民族之間不同之處。在東方,除了中國人,還有越南人也自認是「仙龍」的後代。日本人、韓國(朝鮮)人,也是尊龍為靈物的民族。

  中西海通迄今,少說也有了四、五百年,可惜在互相認識上,還存有很多誤解和錯誤的印象。像中文的「龍」字,英文翻譯成(dragon),便是一項荒謬的大錯。

  首先,正如前述,龍是靈物,是中華民族所獨創獨有的,外國根外沒有此一靈物,它如何能等於 dragon?

  其次,一提到 dragon 這字,在西方人的印象裡,它是神話中凶惡的妖怪(monster),長翅膀、吐火焰,常常為害良民;dragon 的另一個定義是大蜥蜴,像印尼的巨蜥「科摩多」(komodo),英文也把它叫做 dragon。試想,蜥蜴是冷血、骯髒的低等動物,牠如果代表某個人,我們會對此人有好印象嗎?就像中國人一般對癩蛤蟆沒有好感,如果某個人或民族叫做癩蛤蟆的傳人,我們會對這些人產生好印象嗎?

Komodo Dragons 在争食 →
http://www.indonesianjourney.com/travel/bali_tour_package5.html

  今天我們不必追究這字的荒唐翻譯到底是中國人或者是洋人幹的,但是,不讓西洋人繼續誤會我們中國人是 dragon,應該是有自尊、有自我認知的中國人希望看到的。當然,糾正這項積謬幾世紀的錯誤,不是短期能夠做得到的。筆者只是在此提出這一問題,希望有同感而熱心的學者方家,在全世界為正「龍」視聽,提出高見來解決,這也算是為我們同胞的子孫後代做的一件好事。筆者拋磚引玉的淺見,今後學術界可否將中文的「龍」字翻成"loong",先在字典、學術文章、英文著作、電影、電視中使用。同時,希望我們大家再看到英文 dragon 時,不要把它譯成「龍」字,以避免它繼續以訛傳訛。粗淺的建議,dragon 似可譯成「西洋蛟」。這樣行之數十年,可能在端正視聽上稍見效果吧。

  (註:本文受美國加州大學華語教授王錦堂博士亟力向外國學術界推薦;復承台北周玉山教授高度推介)。

原发表网址:http://www.kwangsi-taipei.com.tw/j103.htm#0003
The "Loong" Is Not A Dragon

Meng Tian-shyang

Though contact and cultural exchanges between the East and the West started 4 or 5 centuries ago, yet there are still a number of things and conceptions being misinterpreted that may couse certain prejudice. For example, the Chinese word "Loong" being translated as "dragon", has long been a great mistake, but so far it has not been put forward for clarification.

The Loong known to the world as it has snakeshape long body, buffalo head, tiger teeth, deer horn, cock claws, fish tail, always appears amid the cloud, is the sole creation of ancient Chinese people, and there have never been any creations of the same kind in other parts of the world, so it is wrong for the word Loong to have a foreign equivalent word.

In this sense, "dragon" certainly is not "Loong", because both are totally different from all viewpoints. Loong is almighty, solemn in the mind of oriental people, however, in western peoples' mind, dragon is an evil monster in myth stories, with wings, blowing flame, always does harm. In actual matter, dragon is the synonym of big lizard, dirty, cold blood, eating decayed meat. Like the big lizard, called Komodo, living in some small islands of Indonesia, its name is "dragon".


The Komodo swallowing a pig ... whole.
http://www.ms-starship.com/journal/aug00/3.htm

When western people hear or think of a dragon, naturally, it is hard for them to associate with any good impression. The same case among the Chinese people is that, can a Chinese creates good impression toward a man who calls himself "toad people" since a toad is an ugly little thing in the eyes of the Chinese people?

Archaeologists' recent discovery in Henan province of Chinese mainland proved the oldest picture of Loong was drawn some 6 thousand years ago.

As we know. At that time, the Chinese people already had quite mature agriculture, but people then were also at the stage of "struggling with the nature" (weather, drought, flood, earthquake...etc.). Wind, rain, thunder, lightning which could decide men’s life or death, all were vital to the people, this would cause the people without modern knowledge to fear, admire and respect the natural power. In all ancient Chinese books, legends and stories, almost all things about Loong had elations with the above-stated natural power, so it is reasonable to infer that Loong was the token of the "Almighty Natural Power" in ancient Chinese people's mind. According to scholars, in the very old days, the rainbow might inspire the imagination of Loong, the colors of the sky might also inspire one's imagination of Loong, therefore, golden Loong might imply sunny sky, black Loong might imply cloudy sky and green (blue) Loong might imply clear sky, and storm might be explained to be Loong's fury. No matter what natural phenomenon was, the ancient Chinese people believed it was the Loong's power release.

In the Orient, besides the Chinese people think Loong is noble and solemn, only the royal farnily could use Loong's logo, the Vietnamese people also believed they themselves are the ancestors of the fairy Loong. In Korea and Japan. Loong is divine and respectable as well.

Since the word "Loong" has been wrongly and unfairly translated to be "dragon", it is the language users, translators and teachers' responsibility to prevent the mistake being made in the future. Our suggestion is: from now on, the correct definition and translation of the word "Loong" be printed and used in dictionaries, all kinds of books and mass media. On the other hand, when the word "dragon" needs to be translated into Chinese word, we should never translated it to be "龍" again.

  【补记】蒙天祥先生 2006年来电时告诉编者:此文最早于 2000年在《文讯》上发表。但因本编者无法得到该刊,现仍暂以 2004年《广西文献》为来源。希望大家能够提供《文讯》发表此文的照片。谢谢!(黄佶,2017年8月5日)


首页  导航地图  为龙正名  媒介  外国漫画中的“龙”  Loong 的英文解释  Loong 的应用实例